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Heart Attack: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment



Heart Attack: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment” First of all thanks for landing this article. If you are searching for Heart Attack: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment then we must say you are on right place. So without getting into query let’s directly jump into the heart attack disease.

“Heart Attack”

Heart Attack: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Often a blood clot in coronary arteries result in blockage of blood supply to heart muscles leading to a medical emergency called heart attack.

Different terms utilized for a heart attack incorporate myocardial infarction and coronary thrombosis. An infarction is a localized necrosis in which a tissue dies due to the reduced blood supply.

Risk Factors and Causes:

  • Age: Heart attacks are more probable when a man is more than 45, and when a woman is more than 55.
  • Angina: Absence of oxygen or blood supply to the heart causes chest pain.
  • High cholesterol levels: These can build the possibility of thrombosis.
  • Diabetes: This can build heart attack chance.
  • Diet: For instance, eating large amounts of saturated fats is a risk factor.
  • Genetics: Positive family history places a person at risk of heart attack.
  • Heart surgery: This can prompt a heart attack later on.
  • Hypertension: Unnecessary stress is put on heart by the high blood pressure.
  • Obesity: Being too overweight is related to increased atherosclerosis and hence heart attack.
  • Previous heart attack.
  • Smoking: Smokers are at considerably higher risk than non-smokers.
  • HIV: People who have HIV infection are at 50 percent higher risk.
  • Work Load: Those who are laborers or have stressful occupations can confront a higher heart attack chance.

Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for heart attack, and the physical activity helps prevent heart issues.

Often, when it happens, a heart assault is caused by a blend of variables, as opposed to a solitary one.



Heart attack has clear symptoms that should be given immediate attention.

A squeezing chest pain, tightness, and pressure in the thoracic region or a dull pain in the chest that radiates towards the neck, jaw and left shoulder suggest that one is having heart attack.

Heart Attack: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Heart Attack: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Other associated clinical features are given as follow:

  • coughing
  • Dyspnea (Shortness of breath)
  • Nausea
  • vomiting
  • squeezing chest pain
  • Confusion
  • excessive sweating and feeling clammy
  • restlessness

Changing position has no effect on alleviation of pain. The pain is typically constant.

Warning signs:

Four signs of an attack recorded by the American Heart Association (AHA). These include:

  • Discomfort, squeezing or soreness in the chest that keeps going a few minutes or resolves and then recurs
  • Dull pain in the arms, neck, back, stomach, or jaw
  • Sudden dyspnea

When these symptoms are felt, a person should reach out emergency services.


It is diagnosed after conducting the following tests:

  • ECG or electrocardiograph
  • cardiac enzyme tests
  • chest X-ray


Complications are of two types, i-e immediate and late complications.

Immediate Complications:

  • Arrhythmias: the heart pulsates unpredictably, either too quick or too gradually.
  • Cardiogenic shock: blood pressure drops all of a sudden and the heart is not able to supply the other bodily organs.
  • Hypoxemia: blood oxygen concentration becomes too low.
  • Pulmonary edema: liquid collects in the lungs.
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): the profound veins of the legs and pelvis are clogged by blood clots that interfere with the flow of blood in veins.
  • Myocardial rupture: the wall of heart is damaged that increases the risk of rupture.
  • Ventricular aneurysm: ventricle is a heart chamber that bulges out in aneurysm.

Late Complications:

  • Aneurysm: scar develops on the damaged heart tissue prompting thrombosis, hypotension, and arrhythmias.
  • Angina: insufficient oxygen supply to heart causes chest pain.
  • Congestive heart failure: the heart can just pulsate weakly, leaving a man feeling depleted and short of breath.
  • Edema: fluid aggregates in the ankles and legs, making them swell.
  • Erectile dysfunction: it is by and large caused by a vascular issue. However, depression can also be the reason.
  • Loss of libido: lost sexual drive can happen, particularly in men.
  • Pericarditis: there is chest pain due to inflammation of the lining of heart.

Management during Heart Attack:

Occasionally a person stops breathing during heart attack.  For this situation, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, ought to be begun quickly. This procedure includes:

  • Manual chest compression
  • Defibrillation

Treatment following Heart Attack:

The vast majority will require a few sorts of prescriptions or medications after a heart attack. The point of these measures is to avoid future heart attacks. They may include:

  • Aspirin and different antiplatelet
  • Beta-blockers
  • ACE (angiotensin-converting enzymes) inhibitors
  • Statins
  • Angioplasty
  • CABG or coronary artery bypass graft


A healthy lifestyle is the key to prevent heart issues. Measures for the healthy lifestyle include:

  • No smoking
  • balance diet and healthy eating habits
  • Exercise
  • Adequate sleep at night
  • keeping diabetes under control
  • avoid drinking alcohol
  • maintaining blood cholesterol at ideal levels
  • keeping blood pressure within limits
  • maintaining an ideal body weight
  • avoiding stress
  • learning how to oversee stress

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