Type 2 Diabetes

The Ultimate Guide to Type 2 Diabetes

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It’s not a surprising fact to know that type 2 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. Information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention proposes in the United States alone, 30.3 million individuals, or 9.4 percent of the U.S. populace, has diabetes, and the larger part of these individuals have type 2.

Among those individuals with diabetes, 7.2 million don’t even know they are diabetics, and now, an ever-increasing number of youngsters and teenagers are being diagnosed to have prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Regardless of whether you’ve been diagnosed to have type 2 diabetes or have a positive family history of the disease, this condition can be terrifying. Furthermore, with the required eating regimen and lifestyle changes, and in addition an expanded risk for complications like coronary illness and amputations, we don’t blame you for being scared.

But a diabetic patient can manage the condition successfully. In fact, if you have information about the disease, for example, how insulin resistance emerges and how to prevent it, how to recognize the clinical features of diabetes, and what to eat if you are diagnosed with diabetes, you can get the appropriate treatment and diet.


Indeed, modern-day researchers suggest that you may even be able to prevent complications of type 2 diabetes by making changes in diet and lifestyle in accordance with the disease.

In this article, you’ll get information regarding this disease. So sit back, read up, and make sure that type 2 diabetes does not affect your life goals.

What Is Insulin Resistance? How Can It Cause Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes?

First of all, it’s important to know what type 2 diabetes is. In this type of diabetes, your body fails to control blood sugar level and fails to bring down high glucose within normal limits on its own.

The reason behind high blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes is a condition called insulin resistance, and a corresponding decrease in insulin production by the body. These two variables differentiate type 2 from type 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and other types of diabetes.


Insulin — the hormone that enables your body to regulate glucose level in the blood — is made in your pancreas. Basically, insulin resistance is a condition in which the body’s cells don’t utilize insulin proficiently. Therefore, more insulin than normal is needed to transport glucose into cells to be used for energy generation or storage. A drop in proficiency in getting glucose to cells makes an issue for cell work; glucose is normally the body’s fastest and most promptly accessible source of energy.

Insulin resistance doesn’t evolve immediately and often, individuals with the condition are asymptomatic— which makes it hard to diagnose.

As the insulin resistance progresses, the pancreas reacts by secreting increased amounts of insulin. This higher-than-typical level of insulin in the circulation system is called hyperinsulinemia.

Insulin resistance compels your pancreas to overwork, and initially, it may keep up with body’s increased demand for insulin for some time, but this capacity fades eventually. What’s more, when it does, your glucose levels will rise— prompting prediabetes, the forerunner of type 2 diabetes, or type 2 diabetes itself.

A prediabetic condition doesn’t mean you’ll unquestionably develop type 2 diabetes. Being diagnosed earlier and afterward changing your eating regimen and lifestyle can help keep your health from declining.

Apart from Insulin Resistance, What Are the Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes?

Despite the fact that prediabetes and type 2 diabetes have high incidence rate worldwide, by and large influencing 100 million Americans, researchers still aren’t totally certain about the cause of insulin resistance.

However, diabetes is a multifactorial condition— meaning you can’t simply quit eating sugar or begin exercising to abstain from getting the illness.

Some of the factors that may increase of type 2 diabetes are:

Obesity: Being overweight puts you at high risk of developing diabetes.

Poor dietary habits: Studies have demonstrated that too much consumption of high-caloric, refined foods and drinks, for example, soft drinks and less intake of whole grains, vegetables, and fruits fundamentally put you at risk of type 2 diabetes.

An excess of TV time: Research demonstrates that watching TV excessively (and a lot of sitting by and large) build your risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and different diseases.

Lack of exercise: Lean muscle mass, which can be achieved through exercise and physical activity plays a part in securing the body against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

Sleep habits: Sleep disturbances can influence the body’s balance of insulin and glucose and burdens the pancreas. After some time, this can prompt type 2 diabetes.

Polycystic ovarian disorder (PCOS): A female with PCOS— a hormone imbalance disorder — has a more chance of developing type 2 diabetes as compared to her peers without PCOS.

Age above 45: The older you are, the more you are at risk type 2 diabetes.

Is Type 2 Diabetes Genetic?

Apart from dietary and lifestyle factors, your inheritance also puts you at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Research on twins supports this fact: Identical twins will probably both have diabetes compared with fraternal twins. Furthermore, positive family history diabetes increases your risk of developing diabetes by fourfold.

Your ethnicity or race may influence your risk for type 2 diabetes too. Studies propose African-Americans, Hispanic or Latino Americans, and certain Native-American gatherings have a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes than Caucasian-Americans.

Signs and Symptoms:

During the initial stages, type 2 diabetes frequently doesn’t present any manifestations. However you should know the symptoms and early alarming signs, for example,

  • Frequent pee and extreme thirst
  • Sudden or unexpected weight reduction
  • Increased hunger
  • Blurry vision
  • Acanthosis nigricans (dark, smooth patches of skin)
  • Fatigue
  • Slow or non-healing wounds

Type 2 Diabetes

If you are at risk of type 2 diabetes or notice any of these signs, it’s a smart thought to call your specialist, as you may have type 2 diabetes.

Common Diagnostic Tests for Type 2 Diabetes:

Early diagnosis is essential for controlling diabetes. The American Diabetes Association proposes that in case you are 45 years or older and overweight, you should undergo screening for type 2 diabetes every 3 years.

For screening of type 2 diabetes following tests can be undertaken:

Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test A1C indicates two or three-month estimation of your average glucose levels. The normal value of A1C is 5.7 or below. A value between 5.7 and 6.4 percent signals diabetes and a value of 6.5 percent or higher on two different occasions suggests you are diabetic.

Fasting glucose test this test includes giving a blood sample after eight hours of fast. Normal fasting glucose level is 100 mg/dl. But if the value is between 100 and 125 mg/dl, you have prediabetes, and if you have fasting glucose level of 126 mg/dl or more on two different occasions, you have diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes


A1C and fasting glucose are commonest tests performed however if you’re pregnant or have a hemoglobin variation, your specialist may suggest another technique, for example,

  • Oral glucose tolerance test
  • Blood sugar random

Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes

If you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you may be given the oral medications Glucophage (metformin), which can help bring down your glucose levels.

Type 2 Diabetes

Yet, metformin isn’t the main diabetes drug available to you. Different medications for type 2 diabetes include:

Sulfonylureas and meglitinides: This sort of medication works by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin.

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors: These medications can help the slow processing of certain carbs, to avoid glucose spikes after you eat.

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): This medications increase insulin sensitivity in cells, thusly settling your glucose levels.

DPP-4 inhibitors: These medications inhibit an enzyme called dipeptidyl peptidase 4, enabling the body to wrench out more insulin.

GLP1 antagonists:  This class helps increment insulin production from the pancreas and moderates glucose absorption in the gut.

Aside from these prescriptions, treating diabetes adequately implies adopting a balanced strategy: You’ll have to eat well, work out, and oversee stress since each of these variables can influence your glucose levels. Remaining healthy with diabetes likewise requires self-care — like securing your feet, maintaining oral cleanliness, and keeping an eye on your emotional wellness.

When do You Need Basal or Bolus Insulin?

In case you can’t control your glucose with oral medicines, diet, and lifestyle changes, you may need to add basal or bolus insulin to your treatment.

Basal insulin can help control your glucose between meals or during the night when you’re sleeping. Bolus insulin, then again, is viewed as a rapid or fast-acting type of insulin. Its effect is of shorter duration as compared to basal insulin.

Bariatric Surgery: As a Possible Treatment for Diabetes

Bariatric surgery is another treatment option for management of type 2 diabetes. Although it carries few risks, research proves it may help in remission of type 2 diabetes.


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